Category Archives: Podcast Episodes

The Paris Historical Axis, Episode 182

The Paris Historical Axis

Did you know that the people of Paris have always had a “thing” for lining up major monuments? They exported the idea to Washington DC with French-born architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant. And they definitely implemented the concept with gusto in Paris.

Today we look at the monuments that make up the Paris Historical Axis and how you can get the best view of it for yourself!

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The Tuileries Palace; Paris Historical Axis

What You Will Learn About in this Episode

  • What Is the Paris Historical Axis? [02:37]
  • Other Major Cities Have Linear Axes [04:03]
    Why Do We Like to Line Things Up? [04:48]
  • The Haussmannian Era in Paris [05:55]
  • The Monuments that Make Up the Paris Historical Axis [06:49]
    • The Paris Historical Axis Starts with the Statue of Louis XIV at the Louvre [06:57]
      • Replicas of the Louis XIV Statues [07:37]
    • The Paris Historical Axis Ends with the Grande Arche de la DĂ©fense [08:28]
    • The Paris Historical Axis Goes Through Many Landmarks! [08:45]
  • How Did the Paris Historical Axis Start? [09:34]
    • French Kings Liked Straight Roads [10:39]
    • The Royal Road [11:51]
    • Catherine de Medici and the Palace of the Tuileries [12:11]
      • Paris Used to End with the Tuileries Gardens! [13:13]
      • The Original Point of Origin of the Paris Historical Axis Was the Palace of the Tuileries [14:32]
    • AndrĂ© le NĂ´tre Genius Garden Designer [15:26]
      • Going Beyond the Tuileries [15:57]
      • Place de la Concorde in the 1700s [16:21]
    • There Are Two Arcs de Triomphe in Paris [18:02]
      • The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel [18:28]
      • The Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile [19:13]
    • 1836: A Great Year for the Paris Historical Axis [20:26]
      • The Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile [20:40]
      • The Louxor Obelisk [20:50]
    • How Far Apart Are the Paris Historical Axis Landmarks? [21:14]
    • The Distance Between the Arc de Triomphe and the Grande Arche de la DĂ©fense [22:16]
    • The Size of the Monuments on the Paris Historical Axis Get Bigger and Bigger [23:14]
    • What Is the Best Place to See the Historical Axis of Paris? [23:40]
    • Grand Arche de la DĂ©fense, Worth a Visit? [24:05]
      • How’s the view from the top of the Grande Arche? [24:57]
    • Conclusion [25:33]
      • Who Created the Paris Historical Axis? [26:07]
      • Possible Future Extension of the Paris Historical Axis [26:48]
      • Go See the Paris Historical Axis! [27:43]

A modern view of the Paris Historical Axis

The Paris Historical Axis: Transcript

[00:00] This is Join Us in France Episode 182. Bonjour, I’m Annie and Join Us in France is the podcast where we talk about France, its many quirks, its history, its language, and of course, destinations in France you want to learn about because, hopefully, you’ll be visiting soon!

[00:21] Join Us in France is brought to you by Patreon supporters and Addicted to France, the small group tour company for people who want the best out of their visit to France. We have a tour coming up late May with a few spots left for Paris and I can take one more person for Normandy.

[00:43] We’ll be in Normandy over the D-Day celebrations and everything is selling-out already. If you’re interested in either the Paris or the Normandy tour, make up your mind quickly because it’s time to book hotel rooms and tickets for May and June! Also, if any of you want to join us for a day-trip to Versailles on May 25th, book it fast because that’s going to be full soon too! You can look at all of that on Addicted to France

Intro Music: Style Musette

[00:43] Quick announcement about the email extras: I haven’t send one the last 3 weeks because I didn’t have any inspiration of something that would be helpful to you. In that time lots of new people joined the email list and probably wonder why I don’t email them. Well, I only email when I have something interesting to say.

[02:03] This week-end I’ll send a good one out: I’ll be a graphic that shows the Paris Historical Axis with a list of all the monuments that are included. You’ll be able to print it as a reminder for when you eventually visit Paris. Because I know that you listen to the show with baited breath, but come on, you forget, right? So you can print the episode overview and bring it to Paris with you when you’ll need to look at it!

What Is the Paris Historical Axis?

[02:37] On today’s episode I want to ask a deeeeep philosophical question: if Paris monuments all precisely line up over 8.5 kilometers and nobody knows about it? Do they really line up?
And, more impressively, if I tell you about it, can I make them magically line up?

[03:02]  But, yes, lots of monuments line up in Paris and I’m going to show it to you! Warning: Once you see this, you can never us-see it, yet this is the type of completely arcane knowledge about Paris that will probably never come-in handy, and YET, I bet you’ll go looking for it next time you go to Paris because it’s cool.

[03:30] What am I talking about?
I’m talking about the Paris Historical Axis. The WHAAAAT? The Paris Historical Axis or Axe historique de Paris AKA “la voie royale” (the Royal Road).

[03:47] A select number of French people, such as myself, of course!, know about l’Axe historique de Paris. And it’s something you can go see in person when you visit Paris, I’ll tell you exactly where to stand to see it later in the episode.

View from the Jardin des Tuileries; Paris Historical Axis

Other Major Cities Have Linear Axes

[04:03] You might be familiar with the Washington DC Axis, designed by French-born architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant. The idea is to line up major monuments to organize the city around a strong radiating avenue, symmetry, straight lines, order, power, all that.

[04:27] L’Enfant didn’t invent the concept of lining things up, he imported it from France where it has been a big deal for a long time. Washington DC does it, and so do New Delhi, Canberra, Buenos Aires and possibly others that I don’t know about.

Why Do We Like to Line Things Up?

[04:48] Lining things up perfectly is hard. I know this is trivial, but a few years ago I replaced an old fence along one side of my house. I decided I needed to get off the computer and do something manual for once and how hard could it be? It’s just a wooden fence! Yeah, no. The first section of my fence is so crooked. I got better with practice, but straight lines are not something that happen without effort and know-how.

[05:24] On a much bigger scale, when we line things up in a city, we’re saying look at me, I’m so good, I can line up things that are very far away from one another! In the case of the Paris Historical Axis, the monuments are 8 + kilometers away from one another! If it looks aligned from the sky, that proves human intelligence, right? Yes, probably. People, even the ones without OCD, like to line things up.

The Haussmannian Era in Paris

[05:55] And, of course, Paris also went through the Haussmannian era of cutting through the clutter of narrow messy old streets to get to straight wide avenues that criss-cross Paris in many directions.

[06:10] So, even when it’s hard to do, cities sometimes decide to bite the bullet and do painful improvements, just to be able to show off wide gorgeous avenues.

[06:24] But Paris started on this project in the 1500s when the city was still in its infancy relatively speaking, so at least when it comes to the Paris Historical Axis, they didn’t have to destroy anything to pull it off.

The Monuments that Make Up the Paris Historical Axis

[06:49] So let’s start with the list of monuments that are lined up today and then we’ll go into how it happened.

Paris Historical Axis Map

The Paris Historical Axis Starts with the Statue of Louis XIV at the Louvre

[06:57] When people go to the Louvre they are dazzled by the whole setting and that amazing glass pyramid by I.M. Pei just draws the eye like you wouldn’t believe. The Pyramid is at the center of the the large Plaza called Cour Napoleon.

[07:15] Now, try to ignore the Pyramid for a minute in your mind’s eye, and look to the right a little bit. There’s a statue of a man on a horse there. On the horse is Louis XIV in full glory, and that statue is the starting point of the Paris Historical Axis today!

Replicas of the Louis XIV Statues

[07:37] Extra çredit for trivia: that statue is made of lead and not bronze because it’s a replica that dates from 1988. They put the original (which was made of bronze) inside of the Louvre. There was another original copy of that statue of Louis XIV on a horse at Versailles in the garden, and that one too got put indoors (inside the Orangerie at Versailles) and replaced by a replica.

[08:10] At any rate, the Paris Historical Axis starts at the Louis XIV statue in the courtyard of the Louvre. It’s also a great meeting point if you need to meet someone in Paris because it’s easy to spot and it doesn’t normally draw a crowd 🙂

The Paris Historical Axis Ends with the Grande Arche de la DĂ©fense

[08:28] At the other end of the Paris Historical Axis is the Grande Arche de la DĂ©fense. I’ll tell you more about it at the end of the episode. And I’ll tell you how it’s going to be extended again at the end.

The Paris Historical Axis Goes Through Many Landmarks!

[08:45] So, we start at the statue of Louis XIV at the Louvre, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, we go through the Garden of the Tuileries, place de la Concorde and the Louxor Obelisk, the Champs Elysées, the Arc the Triomphe, the avenue of the Grande Armée, avenue Charles de Gaulle, it goes across the River Seine with a proper bridge now, pont de Neuilly and gets to La Défense.

[09:24] The thing is, these landmarks didn’t all appear in that linear order as we’ll see in a minute.

How Did the Paris Historical Axis Start?

[09:34] How did this whole thing happen? Let’s go back in time and see if we can figure it out. It would be cool if I could tell you about a grand plan by the Knight Templars or the Illuminati or something grand that looked far into the future to make Paris the center of the universe. Or something.

[09:54] Some of the material I read in preparation for this episode certainly hints at some grand plan of universal importance. One saw vital significance in the angle of this axis compared to the geometry of the earth. I can’t do it justice here because it was pure nonsense.
But, it gave me the idea to teach you a wonderful French expression in the French tip of the week later on. The expression is “tiré par les cheveux” which means far-fetched.

[10:31] So, if there was no grand plan, what was it? I think it was really mundane.

French Kings Liked Straight Roads

[10:39] The construction of the first part of the Louvre started in 1546. French Kings who lived at the Louvre liked to go hunt in the forest of Saint Germain en Laye, 20 kilometers away to the west. And they decided they needed a straight road to go hunting. Much of this area was farmland and forest with a nice straight road in the middle.

[11:16] And when their straight road got to one of the two meanders of the River Seine between Paris and their forest at Saint Germain en Laye, they built one of these boat contraptions that crosses a river in a straight line pulled by a rope or a cable. It’s called a “bac” in French, but I don’t know what to call it in English. It’s like a raft with cables or ropes that starts on one bank of the river and pulls you to the other side with your horses or carriages. I’m sure one of you knows and will tell me what that’s called!

The Royal Road

[11:51] In any case, that straight road is how this whole thing started. They called it the Royal Road because Kings wanted it and Kings used it. So that’s why, if you’ve heard of the Paris Historical Axis at all, you may have heard it mentioned as “the Royal Road”.

Catherine de Medici and the Palace of the Tuileries

[12:11] When Catherine de Medici came into power (middle 1500s), she commissioned a palace for herself just a little west of the Louvre, it was called the Palace of the Tuileries. It isn’t there any more because it was set on fire voluntarily during the Paris Commune (May 1871) and the damage was so extensive that they decided to demolish it and move the Government to the Elysées Palace where it still is today.

[12:47] We have an old photo of it, I’ll put it on so you can have an idea of what it looked like.

[13:01] The center of the Palace of the Tuileries was the point of origin of the Paris Historical Axis at first.

Paris Used to End with the Tuileries Gardens!

[13:13] Catherine de Medici liked gardens, and the Tuileries Gardens were developed just for her. Later. After her death, André le Nôtre redesigned her Tuileries Gardens to include straight lines that extend far to the Champs Elysées.

[13:32] But, of course, under Catherine de Medici, Paris pretty much ended at the edge of the Tuileries Gardens, the rest was swamp land, it wasn’t developed. But they started draining that swamp and since the Seine river is nearby, they probably built walls to keep the water inside of the river instead of letting it overflow everywhere.

[13:56] The river Seine is very high and flooding many areas as I record this episode on January 31, 2018. So, yeah, in wet countries like France, you have to use engineering methods to keep the rivers within their path or they’ll constantly flood the area making nearby land unusable.

The Original Point of Origin of the Paris Historical Axis Was the Palace of the Tuileries

[14:32] But back to my Paris Historical Axis. There is a bit of a mystery to me about some parts of the chronology of when these landmarks were placed along the axis. While the Palace of the Tuileries was still there, that was the center of the Paris Historical Axis. But once it got destroyed (1871), they had to replace it with another starting point. They decided on the statue of Louis XIV on a horse near where the Louvre Pyramid is today.

[15:10] Was that statue in the alignment to begin with or did they have to move it to put it in the alignment after 1871? I couldn’t find that information. It’s not that important, I didn’t want to spend too much time on it, but that is an open question.

André le Nôtre Genius Garden Designer

[15:26] Louis XIV (middle of the 1600s) had a genius garden designer called André Le Nôtre. He’s the one who modified Catherine de Medici’s gardens to be all straight lines and extended the perspective to the Champs Elysées. He also designed the gardens at Versailles and many other places. He made the whole concept of French Gardens a huge thing.

Going Beyond the Tuileries

[15:57] As Paris grew, people started building beyond the Tuileries gardens all the way to the top of the Champs Elysées. Strangely enough, the Champs Elysées were designed, funded and built before the place de la Concorde even though you may remember that place de la Concorde is between the Tuileries Gardens and the Champs Elysées. And it’s a big area, it’s 21 acres.

Place de la Concorde in the 1700s

[16:21] For a long time there was no grand plan for the area we know as place de la Concorde today and it went through many iterations as happens everywhere. Le Nôtre planned and built the Tuileries and the Champs Elysées, but when he died in 1700, he hadn’t planned anything for the place de la Concorde area.

[16:42] For most of the 1700s there was a dock on the Seine river where they brought in marble from quarries all over France and probably Italy and all that. That dock was right where the place de la Concorde is today. Marble was big business, that’s probably one of the reasons why they left the area alone.

[17:04] There was also a gabelle tax post (that’s a tax on salt) and, loveliest of all, there were two big open sewers that served the Champs Elysées and the Tuileries that went right into the river. Oh yeah, Paris has cleaned up a lot!

[17:25] In 1753 they organized an architectural competition to make something nice of this mixed use yucky area of the place de la Concorde. And 10 years later they’ve moved the businesses, covered the sewers and placed a grand statue of Louis XV on a horse. And, of course, they placed that statue in the axis of the Tuileries Gardens and the Champs Elysées, so again, they continued aligning things on purpose.

There Are Two Arcs de Triomphe in Paris

[18:02] There are two Arcs de Triomphe in Paris, the construction of both started in 1896 and they were both erected to the glory of our favorite megalomaniac Napoleon. Yes, Napoleon needed TWO monuments to his glory built at the same time and both on the Paris Historical Axis, that goes without saying.


The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel

[18:28] The first Napoleon Arc de Triomphe is near the Louvre and is called the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel. It’s half the size of the other one on top of the Champs Elysées, but it’s twice as cute, so I think you should go look at it.

[18:44] It’s got lovely green and gold horses on top and 4 lovely pink columns. It’s Corinthian style, they completed it quickly, within 2 years. It was used as the backdrop for impressive military shows that Napoleon liked so much. Today you can look around, it’s a nice quiet area, great for photos. And another good place to meet people in Paris because you can’t miss it and it’s quiet.

The Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile

[19:13] The Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile is at the top of the Champs Elysées, it’s twice as big as the other one, they also started building it in 1806, but it took 30 years to complete, so it wasn’t inaugurated until 1836. The Paris Historical Axis goes right through the center of it.

[19:42] You can climb to the top of that Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile, I’ve never done it because I didn’t get around to it when I was younger and now I have bad knees, but the view from the top is interesting.

[19:52] If you go, pay attention to the madness of the traffic going around the roundabout. It will look like chaos to you, but it’s actually following the rules of the right-hand-side priority that we discussed in episode 16 of the podcast. This is a prime example why I don’t recommend people drive in Paris. People who learned to drive in France like myself know what to do, but others are completely flustered by it and it’s dangerous.

1836: A Great Year for the Paris Historical Axis

[20:26] Two monuments were added to the Paris Historical Axis in 1836: the first in July 1836 and the second in October 1836.

The Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile

[20:40] The Arc the Triomphe de l’Étoile on top of the Champs Elysées that I just talked about.It was inaugurated in July 1836.

The Louxor Obelisk

[20:50] They raised the Louxor Obelisk on the Place de la Concorde on October 25, 1836 and they had planned all along to line it up with the center of the Tuileries Gardens and the Paris Historical Axis. It’s uncanny how well all these things line up! French engineers are pretty good I say!

How the Louxor Obelisk was raised; Paris Historical Axis

How Far Apart Are the Paris Historical Axis Landmarks?

[21:14] The Jardin des Tuileries proper is 1 kilometer long. But between the Louis XIV statue and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, that’s 500 meters give or take. Then to the Louxor Obelisk, that’s probably 1.5 kilometers away. Between the Obelisk and the Arc de Triomphe on the Champs Elysées, that’s another 2 kilometer. Then there’s a big jump of 4 kilometers to the Grande Arche in la Défense.

[21:53] When you’re standing at the Louis XIV statue, you may or may not notice the alignment. I don’t think it’s easy to see from the ground there. It’s easier to see from the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel. But try and send me a photo if you can see it!

The Distance Between the Arc de Triomphe and the Grande Arche de la DĂ©fense

[22:16] Then the next major landmark is the Arc de Triomphe and that’s 3 kilometers away from the Arc du Carrousel. The Arc de Triomphe is 50 meters tall, so it’s again fairly easy to see because it’s twice as tall as the previous two monuments on our Historical Axis of Paris.

[22:35] Where it gets tricky to see without looking at it from high up is the next monument on the Historical Axis of Paris, la Grande Arche. If you’re standing in front of the Carrousel, you are 8 kilometers away from La Grande Arche, and even though the Grande Arche is taller (110 meters) 8 kilometers is too far.

[22:56] So we know they line up, but you need a drone to see it and they won’t let me fly a drone in Paris, so, oh well.

The Size of the Monuments on the Paris Historical Axis Get Bigger and Bigger

[23:14] The Louis XIV statue is small(ish). I couldn’t find the exact size of it, but it’s probably 6 to 8 meters tall. The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is 20 meters tall, the Obelisk is 23 meters tall and the Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile is 50 meters tall. That’s what makes the alignment fairly easy to see, at least between the two Arcs de Triomphe. To have a visible perspective, you need an increase in size or it won’t be visible.

What Is the Best Place to See the Historical Axis of Paris?

[23:40] Go in front of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, the green horses are facing you, and on a clear day you can see the Louxor Obelisk and the Arc de Triomphe. I suppose you might see the Grande Arche de la Défense, but it’s 8 kilometers away, so it’s probably a stretch. I’ve never been able to see it!

Grand Arche de la DĂ©fense, Worth a Visit?

[24:05] While we’re talking about the Grande Arche, let me address this: is it worth a visit? My answer is NO.

Unless they make significant changes in the future, it’s not worth schlepping all the way there just to see the inside of a modern building. The Grande Arche was added in 1990, it hasn’t aged well. You can get in an elevator to go to the top and see Paris from up there, that’ll cost you 15€. They often have minor exhibits what cost a few euros more.

[24:42] I’ve been there a few times for work, I know they have a cool Christmas Market on the plaza in front of the Grande Arche, those are good reasons to go. But going just to see it, in my opinion, not worth it.

How’s the view from the top of the Grande Arche?

[24:57] It’s cool, but you are 8+ kilometers away from the Louvre and the Eiffel Tower, that’s too far for most eyes or zoom lenses. I went up to the roof once, I never need to do that again.

[25:14] By comparison, the Tour Montparnasse is only 3 kilometers away from the Eiffel Tower, the view is better from there, but even there, to get a decent photo you need a 200 mm zoom lens. So only go if you have a good reason to go.

Paris soon after 1836: Paris Historical Axis


[25:33] So, there you have it, the Paris Historical Axis. It starts with the Statue of Louis XIV at the Louvre, includes the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, used to include the Palais des Tuileries which has since disappeared, goes through the Louxor Obelisk on place de la Concorde, up the Champs Elysées and through the center of the Arc de Triomphe, through some landmarks that are too close to the ground to see and through the middle of the Grande Arche de la Défense.

Who Created the Paris Historical Axis?

[26:07] As, as we have seen, all of these monuments appeared at different times, but there was always a wish to line them up with the old Royal Road and center them on the Palace of the Tuileries commissioned by Catherine de Medici.

[26:24] So can we say she created the Paris Historical Axis? No really. I think Le Nôtre had more of a thing for long perspectives and straight lines. But I don’t know who gets the credit, lots of people do I’m sure.

Possible Future Extension of the Paris Historical Axis

[26:48] Some day I think it will include a large monument on the place Nelson Mandela in Nanterre, but I haven’t heard of anything specific yet. Next megalomaniac president we get in France will definitely fund something big! And it will have to be big because for perspective to work, the bigger the distance, the bigger the monument has to be.

Go See the Paris Historical Axis!

[27:43] If you want to see it for yourself, go to the Louvre, stand in front of the statue of Louis XIV. If you can’t see it from there, try it from the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel nearby. Then walk up the Tuileries gardens and across to the place de la Concorde and the Louxor Obelisk. You could keep going up the Champs Elysées and to the Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile, but that’s where I get tired and hop on a bus up the Champs Elysées. I’m not a shopper, but if you are, walking might be nice.

[28:22] Whatever you decide to do, one thing is for sure: the Paris Historical Axis is a fun silly thing to know about and it’s even better to see it in person. I’ve got all sorts of maps and photos for you to enjoy it vicariously on the website for the show, and those really help to visualize it.

Thank You for Your Support!

[28:44] Thank you Mike Capone, Saundra Hendricks, Ruberta Burke, and Erin Dombrowski for pledging to support the show on Patreon this week. Wow, 4 new patrons in one week, that’s not happened for a long time, I’m so glad you like the show! And my thanks also to all the patrons who support the show month after month, you guys rock! To see the different ways you can support the show visit this page.

Personal Update

[29:17] I have been calling tour members so I can get to know them a little bit. Tour members know me and Elyse because they’ve been listening to podcast episodes, but we have no idea who you are until we meet you! Again, I am delighted with the caliber people who are coming on this tour and really look forward to spend time showing off my country to you!

[29:41] No other tour company that I know of gives you a chance to get to know the tour guides before you spend a week with them. And that makes a big difference because some of the tour guides I’ve met I wouldn’t want to spend more than an hour with them, let alone a week!

[29:57] I know most of you find the podcast because you have specific plans to come to France and you need information on Paris or one of the many other places we’ve talked about. We’re happy sharing all the info we know with you because we want you to have a fantastic time in France whether you tour with us or not.

[30:17] So, why do we even offer tours if our listeners are looking for information on how tour by themselves? Well, some of you want to come to France really badly, but you travel alone because your significant other doesn’t like to travel as much as you do, or you’re single, or widowed, or you keep making plans to go, but they always fall through because life happens. Some of you travel with family or friends, but you don’t have the time to put together a great tour because that’s a lot of work! That’s why we offer Addicted to France tours! It’s a fun small side activity for us.

[30:57] Some of you want to see France with a local. It’s always better with a local, right? I don’t sound like a French person right off the bat, but I am French born and raised, and French with a Toulouse accent to boot. They think that’s adorable in Paris and I play that card for all it’s worth. You’ve heard of haughty waiters in France? Nobody’s ever haughty with me because I make them smile. That’s how I get what I want and what my customers want.

[31:30] Don’t stay home because planning a trip to France is overwhelming or because you’re worried about traveling alone. Come on our tour, we’ll take great care of you, you’ll see my France and it’s a great place to be! And make up your mind fast because May is coming up quickly, the Dordogne tour in the fall is already sold out and we won’t offer another Paris tour until 2019.

[31:58] On a much darker note, I also want to say thank you to all of you who’ve expressed condolences on the passing of my dog Luna. I mentioned her on the show last week because she was noisy while I was recording even thought she was right next to me. She was almost 15 and she had major neurological problems probably due to a brain tumor. We didn’t do the MRI to confirm the diagnosis because at her age, no matter what the cause was, the treatment was going to be the same and there are no miracle cures.

32:43] She spent the whole time I was recording being upset, growling softly, she was really anxious. With hindsight, I realize that she was hours away from totally losing control over her body, and I mean she went from being able to get around with some assistance to having no idea what to do with her legs, where up and down was, unable to stand for even a second, and all of that within the span of 2 hours.

[33:12] I am now dogless for the first time in 23 years. Let’s see how long that lasts. I’ll be able to do more with guide dogs now for sure. Be good to your pets, they bring so much into our lives and they don’t live long enough no matter how long they live.
Luna loved to walk. She never went to Paris, but I bet she would have liked the Paris Historical Axis as much as I do.

French Tip of the Week

[33:38] C’est tiré par les cheveux. Literally that means “pulled by the hair” or forced. If you drag someone by their hair, you are clearly forcing them right? Who does that BTW, that’s awful! Anyway, the etymology went from “pulled by the hair” to “forced” to “far-fetched”. It’s a really common expression that you will hear frequently in France because we’re a bunch of skeptics who upon hearing something will naturally not believe it. So here you go: c’est tiré par les cheveux, it is far-fetched!

How to Contact the Show

[34:31] The best way to connect with me is via email, there’s also a phone number you can call and leave a message 1-801-806-1015. You can ask your trip at that number and I will answer it on the show. You can also ask your questions on the Join Us in France Closed Group on Facebook, a lively place to be with lots of helpful folks who know Paris well.

Misc. Updates

[35:11] I’m making progress on the new website, getting to the point where I might launch it even if I haven’t transfered as many of the episodes as I’d like because it’s taking too long! Those of you who are subscribed to the podcast with whatever App you are listening to right now will continue to have access to all new and old episodes, nothing will change for subscribers. But if you’re not subscribed, I recommend you do so you don’t miss anything even when I pull the trigger too soon on the website!

Next Week on the Podcast

[35:46] Next week on the podcast, an episode with Elyse that will be an overview of why you should also come visit our home in Toulouse. We’re happy to meet you in Paris or Normandy, but get this: we have a wine bar in Toulouse that was voted the best wine bar in the world last year. And it’s right next to a wonderful salon de thé or tea shop. Strangely, I’ve been to the tea shop many times, but never to the wine bar. I’ll be dragging my husband there next week-end. Poor husband, eh?

[36:23] Anyway, I hope you all have a wonderful week of planning your next trip to France and daydreaming about France and do join us on a tour, you’ll have the time of your life! Au revoir!

The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Episode 181

The Hunchback of Notre Dame

On today’s episode of the podcast Annie tells the story of the Hunchback of Notre Dame, the novel by Victor Hugo.

Did  Victor Hugo really single-handedly save Notre Dame through his novel?

How bad is the Disney version of the story?

Who are the main characters?

What happens in the novel?

How did the story of the Hunchback become such a favorite for so long?

And finally why knowing this story will make the Notre Dame Cathedral come to life for you too!

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Drawing of Esmeralda and other Characters; Hunchback of Notre Dame

The Hunchback of Notre Dame: Transcript


This is Join Us in France Episode 181. Join Us in France is the podcast for where we talk about France, its many quirks, its history, its language, and of course, destinations in France you want to learn about because, hopefully, you’ll be visiting soon!

Bonjour, I’m Annie Sargent and on today’s episode I’m going to tell you about the Hunchback of Notre Dame, the novel by Victor Hugo. Whenever I am at Notre Dame I like to imagine Quasimodo climbing the facade of the Cathedral, Esmeralda dancing on the esplanade, the gargoyles singing, and Frollo being evil.

Did Disney Get It Right?

But, of course, that’s not quite the story Victor Hugo told. The story has been re-told many times, most notably in a Disney movie in 1996. If you remember the story at all, that’s probably the one that stuck in your mind, and it wasn’t particularly faithful to Victor Hugo’s story.

It’s still a good movie of its own right, visually stunning, the music is great, but if you’re preparing a trip to France, I think you’ll be glad you know about the original story because it reveals a lot about French society and how it worked in the late Middle Ages when the story takes place.

The Sad State of Notre Dame During and After the French Revolution

[01:50] Many tour guides will tell you that Victor Hugo single-handedly saved Notre Dame Cathedral from assured destruction. While I think that might be a slight exaggeration, the uncomfortable truth is that Notre Dame was in terrible disrepair after the French Revolution.

[02:13] The Revolution was hard on all religious buildings, and in particular convents and monasteries. Groups of nuns and monks were threatened, many of them killed, their orders disbanded. The buildings were turned over to military groups or even opened for everyone and anyone to take over.

The Hunchback of Notre Dame: Published in 1831, Story Set in the Late 1400s

[02:35] The novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame was first published in 1831. When the novel came out, most of the critics loved it. There were a few curmudgeons who didn’t like it (I’m looking at you Balzac!) but readers loved historical fiction, and it became necessary to do a second edition within a few months of the first one. The novel is set in the late 1400s right there in Paris, a place that was familiar to readers, and yet taking on almost magical capabilities.

How the Hunchback of Notre Dame Got People’s Attention

[03:14] What a popular great book can do is turn people’s attention to a topic they had been ignoring thus far. The people of Paris around 1830 knew that Notre Dame was in shambles because they could see it. They knew that during the Revolution the Cathedral was looted and that the people of Paris not only stole everything they could, but they used what they stole to put on plays to make fun of religion on the public square.

The Temple of Reason

[03:45] Notre Dame was renamed the Temple of Reason and they forced clergy to perform secular rituals that were based on church rituals, just making fun of belief. It was so extreme that Robespierre himself wanted to put an end to it eventually and declared that the people had to have freedom of religion.

Wine Storage and a Saltpeter Factory

[04:08] Two of the stranger things that happened at Notre Dame were that it was used as a wine storage facility and as a saltpeter factory. What’s a saltpeter factory, you ask? Saltpeter is a crucial ingredient to make canon powder, and the Revolutionaries were leading both a civil war and a war against other European powers, so they needed plenty of saltpeter. To give you the 10 seconds summary, saltpeter is scraped off wet, bad plaster walls. Humid basements have saltpeter. They asked people to scrape the stuff off their cellars and bring it to Notre Dame where it could be allowed to dry and packaged to be used in the war effort.

The Damage to the Cathedral Was Obvious

[05:00] The people could see the broken statues. They could see that the roof was deteriorating, that the stained-glass windows were broken, that the floors were torn up. Things turned around for the Cathedral in 1802 when the keys were given back to the custodian of the building and he was able to control comings and goings. Repairs happened slowly. But people didn’t come to the rescue of Notre Dame en masse until the novel woke enough people up to the urgency and the need to reclaim the church as part of our heritage and make it whole again. But eventually they got there thankfully.

Detail of a statue on Notre Dame; Hunchback of Notre Dame

Hunchback of Notre Dame: Hugo Compared to Dickens

[05:41] Now, let me tell you about the novel and why it why it was so popular. Victor Hugo was a literary genius, to me, on the same level as Charles Dickens. They were contemporaries: both born early 1800s. Victor Hugo died at age 83 whereas Dickens died of a stroke at age 58. They both wrote during the romantic period and both wrote within the same genre: historical fiction. They both wrote about poor people and the human condition.

Character Flaws Drive the Plot

[06:22] To me, the biggest difference between Hugo and Dickens is that Hugo drives his plots with character flaws instead of events that happen in the world. For example, Victor Hugo put in play a judge who happens to be deaf and desperate to hide that fact. Then, by a whole series of comical misunderstandings, that I’ll get back to in a minute, due to being deaf and in denial, that leads to Esmeralda being condemned to death for a crime she didn’t commit. So at first you laugh about the deaf judge who is such a fool, and then you realize in horror where that’s going to lead.

[07:10] Hugo also writes counter-intuitive thieves that are obsessed with following arbitrary rules that they set between themselves. That also leads to funny situations, but the thieves are often more moral than the judges.

Dickens Was More Conventional Than Hugo

[07:30] It seems to me that Dickens writes judges that behave like judges and thieves that behave like thieves. What drives the plot with Dickens is that there are events that happen outside of the protagonist’s control, plot are things that happen outside of the protagonist’s control, but people behave more or less according to their rank and place in society. Hugo didn’t follow that convention, and that’s how he surprised a lot of average readers who got a good laugh every few pages.

Read the Abridged Version!

[08:04] But I have to face up to the fact that years ago I tried to read the complete edition in paperback and I gave up. I can’t remember why I gave up, but the size of the thing alone probably scared me (733 pages).

[08:24] So this time I went for the abridged version on Audible, an audio book, and I got it in French because French is my native tongue and I enjoy works in the original language better, anyway. The French abridged version is read by an actor André Dussollier, it’s a pleasure to listen to. It’s really engaging, I really, really enjoyed the book.

Should You Try to Read It in French?

[08:48] But if French isn’t your native tongue, should you try it in French? Let’s put it this way, for those of you who are Patreon supporters, if you can understand Lunch-Break French easily without following along with the text, you might do fine with this audio book in French. But it’s advanced French, be warned. It think it’s better to read an abridged version in English than not read it or listen to it at all.

Hunchback of Notre Dame: What Disney Got Right

[09:16] So, what’s in Notre Dame de Paris? I am now going to tell you the actual original story as Victor Hugo wrote it. I will skip several parts because it’s so long, but I won’t completely change the story like Disney did. So if you know the Disney version called the Hunchback of Notre Dame, you’ll notice big differences.

[09:43] If you’re coming to Paris with kids and they know the Disney story, they’ll be glad to see the actual Cathedral where most of the movie takes place. And you should take them up the tower where Quasimodo spent most of his life.

[10:02] I must say that Disney did a good job a rendering Notre Dame visually. The story takes place around 1480 (late Middle Ages) and the stone at Notre Dame was not cleaned up and restored to its original beauty until the middle 1800s, so Disney was correct to show it as a dark gray cathedral.

[10:28] When you go today, late afternoon the stone looks creamy yellow, you’ll see it in my pictures, But the people who lived in the 1400s never saw it like that ever! Disney also shows a crowded space in front of the Cathedral which is how it was until the middle of the 1800s. So they got some things right, and they deliberately changed other things.

The Hunchback of Notre Dame: Plot Summary

[11:09] But, back to the book. The book opens with the election of the pope of fools. That’s when you meet Quasimodo. Various people are trying to make the ugliest face they can through a contraption that only shows their face. Then Quasimodo appears, and he’s clearly the ugliest thing anybody has ever seen. People are in awe of how ugly he is. A true freak who is clearly freaked out by what’s happening around him. Everybody is stunned when they realize that this is really his face, he wasn’t trying to make faces!

[11:54] Later on in the book, In the second part of the book we meet a poet named Gringoire, and a thief called Clopin. Clopin begged from Gringoire that very day and Gringoire refused to give him anything.

Esmeralda Saves Gringoire

[12:09] Gringoire is condemned to hang death for being too different from present company. But if one of the women in the room wants him, he’ll go free with his new bride. A fat woman comes up, and she doesn’t want him because he’s not rich enough. An old black woman comes up, and she finds him too skinny. A fine young lady comes up to take a look at him and he begs her to take him, but she’s capricious and says no. Then, just as they were about to hang him, in comes Esmeralda, the gorgeous Gypsy woman who takes pity on him, and says she will marry him. She only marries him to save him, her heart is already taken. But she can’t stand to see a perfectly good man be hung for no reason.

Notre Dame Cathedral Described by Victor Hugo

[13:07] The third part of the book is a lovely description of Notre Dame Cathedral and a scathing indictment of the renovation work by everybody ever. If parts of the Cathedral were broken, Victor Hugo believed in replacing them with the exact same thing. Actually, that’s very much what the folks who maintain Notre Dame today are doing. But for a long time, architects “improved” Notre Dame by adding this or that and he lists several in the book and Violet-le-Duc did even more.

[13:50] I’ll put a link to an old translation of that part for those of you who want to read it.  Victor Hugo clearly knew a lot about architecture, about Gothic architecture and Notre Dame in particular. And you know what? Going back to Episode 180 last week when I told you about the Gallery of Kings, Victor Hugo says that the Gallery of Kings represents the Kings of France and not the Kings of Judah! The Revolutionaries were not the only ones who thought that.

The Threat of Printed Book According to Frollo

[14:34] This is also where we learn that Frollo is obsessed with the idea that Cathedrals tell stories in stone and that the book (the printing press and cheaper books were new at the time) would supplant the Cathedral by telling stories in words and not in stone. Architecture was the universal language before the printing press came to be. Alas, Frollo’s prediction has come true. Few people today can read the stories told in stones on Cathedrals. But, thankfully, we have many ways to learn new things that would blow his mind. Frollo is worried about books, what would he have to say about podcasts?!

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories the Gallery of Kings

Druids Didn’t Write Anything Down for Fear of Their Knowledge Being Stolen

[15:19] Worrying about new technologies is something every generation does. Did you know, for example, that a fundamental tenant of the Druid religion in Brittany, was that knowledge could not be written down? If written down, knowledge could be stolen. So, don’t write, make people memorize everything.

[15:47] People who wanted to become druids needed to spend 20 years memorizing things. So, by the time you were old enough to have the knowledge death was near—7 or 8 years growing up, 20 years in school, by the time you were ready to be productive, they would be around 28-30 years old. Is it any wonder that their civilization died out so fast?

The Day Quasimodo Was Adopted

[16:16] The fourth part of the book is a flash back to the day when Quasimodo was abandoned as a baby and left in the spot inside of Notre Dame Cathedral where that sort of business was conducted. People would come by during Sunday Mass, drop off a baby, and the parishioners knew the baby was free to a good home kind of thing. I listened to a radio interview with a historian who has researched foundling children in Paris and she was fascinating, I will certainly do an episode about foundling children in Paris at some point.

Foundling Babies in Paris During the Middle Ages

[17:01] On the day Quasimodo was abandoned, dozens of people are perusing the new babies, but he gets all the attention because of what he looks like. That part of the book is gripping because the people have never met such a deformed child. He’s not abandoned as a baby, he’s actually an underfed 4-year-old. Some people are frightened at the sight of him, some donate money to feel less heartless for being horrified, but the old widows who normally handle foundling children decide maybe they should make a fire and kill him. The description Victor Hugo gives us is amazing, you really think they’re going to kill this baby!

Frollo Adopts Quasimodo

[17:52] But a young priest has been looking over the scene and he announces that he will adopt this child. He is described as austere, already losing his hair and with deep-set eyes. Victor Hugo doesn’t give any hints as to why, the priest takes the child, put him in his robes and walks off without giving any explanation. The priest baptizes his adopted child and names him Quasimodo, a name he makes up. Quasi means almost modo means human or newborn. So he’s either a quasi human or a quasi newborn which he is both, really.

Quasimodo Becomes the Bell Ringer at Notre Dame

[18:24] Then the story jumps 12 years to when Quasimodo is 16 and the bell ringer at Notre Dame. His whole world is within the walls of the Cathedral, which he almost never leaves. Quasimodo is one with the church, he can climb the walls like a lizard almost, the Cathedral is his world and his shell. And because he starts ringing the bells at age 14, he loses his earing by age 16.

Quasimodo Is at Home with the Gargoyles

[19:16] The hunchback can now only see in one eye, walks funny (and yet is very agile in his familiar environment), becomes deaf, and decides not to speak any more. And is so ugly people recoil at the sight of him. Frollo taught him how to read and write, but he is happiest with the gargoyles and the chimera who look upon him with a favorable eye because he’s monstrous just like they are, but he is alive.

Where the Novel and the Disney Movie Differ the Most

[19:48] And this is where the book and the movie defer completely. In book 4, Frollo is portrayed as a kind man and Quasimodo as a mean person. Quasimodo has become mean because he grew up to be almost wild, and the world has been so mean to him. And Quasimodo is strong as a horse which scares people. The only people who don’t make fun of him are the Kings and Saints made of stone that he knows so well. The gargoyles and chimeras don’t scare him because they look like him and he talks to them.

Quasimodo Loves His Bells and Frollo

[20:27] Quasimodo loves two things above all: his bells and his adoptive father, Claude Frollo. Quasimodo is grateful to his father and hangs on his every word and every wish. Frollo is serious and stern, but treats Quasimodo fairly.

Quasimodo Is Tortured and Esmeralda Is Kind to Him

[20:49] A new chapter opens with Quasimodo in shackles, brought before a judge for vague accusations that may or may not be real. This is the foolish judge I told you about at the beginning. The judge is almost completely deaf and has spent many years trying to hide that fact. He asks a question, and the defendant answers. The clerk writes the answers even though the judge has no idea what he said, and moves on to the next question.

[21:27] But when the deaf judge questions Quasimodo who is also deaf, Quasimodo answers nothing, and the judge doesn’t realize that no words were spoken. At one point the judge asks if the clerk has been able to write down all the answers and everybody in the room bursts out laughing because Quasimodo still hasn’t said anything.

[21:52] Quasimodo has no idea what’s happening, and he decides to answer the next question by saying his name when the judge was asking him why he was brought in. More hilarity in the room. Eventually the judge is so angry that he passes a cruel sentence and Quasimodo is going to be whipped. Victor Hugo describes the torture in detail and gives voice to the horrible people who encourage the beating so we’re outraged at how mean people are.

Esmeralda Is Compassionate

[22:27] Esmeralda is the only one who has enough compassion to give tortured Quasimodo some water even though Frollo had sent him to kidnap her before (that attempt had failed) and she recognized him. But she still has pity on him.

Esmeralda and Phoebus Have a Rendez-Vous

[22:47] A handsome Captain named Phoebus has a rendez-vous with Esmeralda. Women fall in love with him all the time because he is so handsome. Esmeralda has been totally smitten with him for a long time whereas Phoebus just wants to have fun. He is on his way to the hotel where they are meeting when he realizes he is being followed.

Frollo Follows Phoebus

[23:15] The man following him is Frollo who is also madly in love with Esmeralda and has sent Quasimodo to kidnap her before (unsuccessfully), and now Frollo bribes the Captain to be able to observe their rendez-vous. Yes, he just wants to look he says and Phoebus, always tight on funds takes the bribe.

Frollo the Creep

[23:46] The more the novel progresses, the more we realize just how strange Frollo is. He is a priest, he is supposed to be celibate, we learn how when Frollo was younger other priests would come to him for advice on how to bridle their libido because he was so good at it. Well, Frollo is now pursuing Esmeralda. I suppose he could give up his priesthood and marry her, just be up-front about it, but instead he goes a darker route. He wants her kidnapped, he wants to watch her while on a rendez-vous with another man, Frollo is in full creep mode.

Frollo Stabs Phoebus

[23:30] Esmeralda resists Phoebus at first, she talks about their marriage, but Phoebus says you must not love me if you want me to wait (haven’t we heard that line before ladies, eh?!) and she is about to give in to him when Frollo barges in, stabs Phoebus and then flees.

Esmeralda Is Condemned to Death

[25:01] Esmeralda faints and wakes up when surrounded by law men. She is brought before a judge and the proceedings are such that Victor Hugo points out all the flaws of the justice system. She is accused of being a foreign witch and Esmeralda admits that she indeed a foreigner. And just like that, she is found guilty and condemned to death.

Esmeralda’s Despair

[25:30] This is where we learn about Esmeralda’s despair, her cruel detention circumstances, she is thrown in a damp cellar without a blanket and suffers from delirium and hypothermia. Using his position as a priest, Frollo comes to visit her and at first she doesn’t recognize him. She begs him to take her away from this awful tomb.

Frollo Visits Esmeralda in Jail

[25:44] Then he reveals his face, and she recognizes the strange man who has followed her around many times and who stabbed Phoebus. He offers to take her away from this misery and declares his love to her. But she would rather die here than go anywhere with him. She curses him. He is crushed and leaves her in the jail.

Esmeralda Faces Her Accusers in Front of Notre Dame

[26:21] Next day, Esmeralda is led to the small plaza in front of Notre Dame to be presented to the public before she is led to the Place de Grève to be executed. Place de Grève used to be where city hall is today, not far from Notre Dame. This is where for centuries people were brought to be burned alive or tortured to death or whatever other unpleasantness were common back then. Esmeralda is in full despair, she thinks she sees Phoebus at one of the windows.

Quasimodo Rescues Esmeralda and Gives Her Asylum

[27:00] Suddenly Quasimodo jumps down on a rope from the Gallery of Kings and swoops to grab Esmeralda. He takes her in the air with him and yells ASILE! Asylum! The crowd cheers him on. Quasimodo can finally show off his skills to everyone. He swings from rope to rope taking her higher and higher on the Cathedral. He is strong, he has Esmeralda in his arms, and the people are astounded by this feat.

Quasimodo Takes Care of Esmeralda

[27:38] Esmeralda is now under the care of Quasimodo inside of Notre Dame, she has a tiny room with a small window from which she can see the cloister (don’t go looking for the the cloister, it isn’t there any more). Esmeralda is safe there because the authorities have no hold on her thanks to the rules of Asylum. But she still loves Phoebus and refuses to believe that he’s dead. Frollo is also still in love with Esmeralda and he can see her window from his room in the cloister.

How Asylum Worked in France

[28:20] Asylum was an important part of French law and customs between the Middle Ages and Louis XII. The justice system was so fatally flawed and unfair that asylum was seen as a counter balance mechanism. But asylum was also deeply flawed because murderers and the innocent alike took advantage of it.

[28:48] Any Royal Palace, Princely Residence or church were places were you could go ask for asylum. Sometimes, where there was a need to attract new population to a city, the whole city was declared to be an asylum city for a time, Louis XI turned Paris into an Asylum city in 1467.

Look for the Ring of Asylum on the Door at Notre Dame

[29:16] Once within the asylum zone, the criminal couldn’t be touched. But as soon as they left, they could be captured to go back into the hands of justice. When you go to Notre Dame, look for the Ring of Asylum on the door where you exit the Cathedral. I’ll put a picture of it on the show notes for this episode. Once you had the Ring of Asylum in hand, you were safe from the law.

Asylum Ring on the Door of Notre Dame; the Hunchback of Notre Dame

Frollo Seethes with Jealousy

[29:43] Frollo was going mad. He stopped going out of his room from which he observes Esmeralda. And he saw Quasimodo visit her in her room and how she talked to him. In Frollo’s wild imagination, Esmeralda is in love with Quasimodo and she has somehow betrayed him once more. Remember, he feels like she betrayed him with Phoebus and now with Quasimodo.

Frollo Tries to Rape Esmeralda

[30:17] Frollo broke into Esmeralda’s room and again tried to convince her to love him. She refused again. He pressed her and tried to overcome her physically. But Quasimodo gave her a whistle to use to call him, it’s one of the few sounds he can hear.

Quasimodo Stops Frollo

[30:37] When he heard the whistle, Quasimodo rushed to Esmeralda’s room knife in hand and found a man on top of her. As Quasimodo dragged the intruder out of the room, there was more light and he was able to recognize Frollo. Shocked that he almost killed his adoptive father, he gives him the knife and offers his life to Frollo. Esmeralda grabs the knife, is ready to kill Frollo and Frollo runs off swearing that nobody will have Esmeralda.

Clopin Attacks Notre Dame to Rescue Esmeralda

[31:10] Clopin, the King of the Thieves, brought his army of villains to take Notre Dame and remove Esmeralda because he heard that Frollo will go back on his obligation of asylum and will relinquish her to the authorities. Again, the priest isn’t true to his word, but the thieves fulfill their obligation to their sister Esmeralda.

Quasimodo Defends His Cathedral

[31:36] From the top of the Cathedral, Quasimodo saw what was happening and defended his church by using construction material that were stored on the roof. He threw all sorts of things on the robbers, even melted lead to throw it down upon the robbers. This is where we learn that roof structure at Notre Dame is called the forest that’s still its name today.

Quasimodo’s Epic Battle to Save Notre Dame

[32:19] An epic fight ensues that opposes Quasimodo to all the robbers. Quasimodo shines and kills dozens. But eventually the robbers manage to break the door of the Cathedral, enter to rob the place. They came for Esmeralda, but seeing the treasure inside the Cathedral, they get distracted. The King’s soldiers, including Phoebus who we thought dead!, come to chase the robbers away from Notre Dame.

Quasimodo Goes Looking for Esmeralda and Find Frollo

[32:52] Quasimodo abandons his fighting post and goes to find Esmeralda. Her room is empty. He searches for her and finds Frollo instead. Frollo is deep in thought and pays no attention to Quasimodo. Then Quasimodo remembers that the only person besides him that has the key needed to get to Esmeralda’s room was Frollo.

Frollo and Quasimodo See Esmeralda Hung on Place de Grève

[33:20] Frollo is looking towards the Place de Greve where a hanging is about to take place. Both Quasimodo and Frollo watch and Quasimodo realizes in horror that Esmeralda is hanging. Frollo burst out in an evil laugh that Quasimodo cannot hear, but he sees it on his face. Quasimodo rushes towards Frollo and pushes him off the tower of Notre Dame.

Quasimodo Pushes Frollo Off the Towers of Notre Dame

[33:52] Frollo hangs on a long time and father and son exchange a terrible last looks. Frollo clearly wants to live, but Quasimodo, in tears, will not help him. Frollo takes forever to fall, but eventually he does. Frollo’s body bounces off various parts of the church and dies on the ground below.

Quasimodo Follows Esmeralda’s Body and Lets Himself Die in Her Arms

[34:23] Quasimodo disappeared from the Cathedral the day Frollo and Esmeralda died. Esmeralda’s body is taken to an open mass grave. Two years later, when they went looking for the body of a man who the king didn’t think deserved to be left in a mass grave, they find the mostly decayed bodies of Esmeralda and Quasimodo, holding one another, and when they tried to move him away from her, his body fell to dust.

I mean, how’s that for a dramatic ending?!


[35:07] I am the type of person who can spend a couple of hours inside of a Cathedral and be content looking around at the stained-glass, the candle light, the statuary, try to piece together Bible stories, and wonder what all happened in there over 850 years.

[35:30] It wasn’t always so, I remember getting impatient in church as a child. As an adult, I remember walking in a church, thinking this feels unfamiliar and uncomfortable, and walking out immediately.

[35:43] But it really doesn’t have to be so. Next time you’re at Notre Dame, think about both the wonderful stories that the Cathedral tells in stone, and also about the wonderful stories that other people have told that take place at Notre Dame, such as the gripping story of the Hunchback of Notre Dame.

Support for the Show

[36:09] Thank you Colleen Phelan for your pledge to support the show on Patreon this week! A lot of new things are happening for patrons such as yourself, so listen up Patreon supporters, I think you are going to like it!

[36:25] Patrons now have access to two rewards per month: Lunch-Break French, that’s the advanced French audio where I write an article in French and English, I read it to you in French first, then I read it in French and English line by line. That’s wonderful for those of you who are learning French and trying to develop your listening comprehension skills.

[36:50] And, new starting this month, you also get one installment of the French History Brief where I tell you about one aspect of French history that I’ve researched. That’s in English only. For the month of January I just released one called The Latin Quarter in Paris during the Middle Ages. I explain how it was completely different from the area you can visit today!

[37:07] And the third new thing for Patreon supporters is that you now get your own private RSS feed that lets you subscribe to Lunch-Break French and the French History Brief with your podcast app on your phone. Patreon sent instructions on how to do that in your email box, but if you missed it and need help, let me know, it’s easy as pie.

[37:39] It’s the same idea as subscribing to any podcast, but it’s a private feed for patrons to say thank you for your support. Once you subscribe to your exclusive Patreon feed, Lunch-Break French and the French History Brief will appear “auto-magically” on your phone or tablet, so you can listen on-demand.

[38:02] You get all of this for a donation of $5 a month. And I hope you get great satisfaction when you see that you’re helping the show continue and help you make your next trip to France even better than the last one. Thank you patrons!

[38:18] Thank you also to Jessica Bell for Tipping Your Guide. Sending in a one-time tip is also much appreciated. You get value from the show and you want to say thank you? Visit to see what you can do to give back.

[38:37] Next Week on the Podcast: A short episode on the Axe Historique de Paris.

Au revoir, I’ll talk to you next week!

Next Week on the Podcast

[14:35] Next week on the podcast I’ll be telling you another wonderful story that takes place at Notre Dame Cathedral, the story told by Victor Hugo that you know as The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

I listened to the book this week and loved it and I can’t wait to tell you all about it. I haven’t seen the Disney movie yet, I’ll do that this week in preparation for the podcast. See, it’s a rough podcaster’s life when you have to watch movies and read books! And yes, the gallery of kings, plays into Victor Hugo’s story as well.

Au revoir, I’ll talk to you next week!


Notre Dame Cathedral Stories, Episode 180

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories

Notre Dame Cathedral is over 850 years old. Oh, the things it must have seen! The stories it could tell! But while Notre Dame cannot tell us all the things that happened within its walls, we can pay attention to what the art is telling us. So, let’s look around together and open your eyes wide. 

This episode is brought to you by Patreon supporters and Addicted to France, the Tour Company that specializes in small group and custom tours in France. And we’ve a great tour coming up in May, check it out here.

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Notre Dame Cathedral Stories: Transcript

[00:00] This is Join Us in France Episode 180. Join Us in France is the podcast for where we talk about France, it’s many quirks, it’s history, it’s language, and of course, destinations in France you want to learn about because, hopefully, you’ll be visiting soon!

On today’s episode I’m going to tell you the story of the gallery of kings, about some Bible Stories you can easily find at Notre Dame and give you some help recognizing the saints in French churches.

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories

[01:00] Notre Dame Cathedral is over 850 years old. Oh, the things it must have seen! But while Notre Dame cannot tell us all the things that happened within its walls, we can pay attention to what the art is telling us. So, let’s look around together and open your eyes wide.

An Episode Dedicated to the Curious

Occasionally I see someone in a Cathedral, even at Notre Dame, who doesn’t seem engaged in the visit at all. Some of them, came all the way from the other side of the world to see it, and yet they walk around in there looking engaged blasé. Maybe they don’t understand what they are looking at.

I know we’re all busy and we don’t have time to do lots of research before we visit go places, but curiosity is good when traveling. So, here’s an episode dedicated to the curious traveller!

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories; Crowned Man Under Foot

Gallery of Kings at Notre Dame Cathedral, which I like to call the Decapitated Kings

[02:01] So let’s start strong with the story of decapitated kings. High above the 3 entrance portals of Notre Dame, the sculptors of the Cathedral placed 28 Kings.

They all stand in one row, all wearing crowns, all looking down on their people. This is called the Gallery of Kings. I’ll put photos on, because it’s best if you can look and see what I’m talking about.

Description of the Gallery of Kings

[02:41] But for those of you who can’t look at them right now, let me describe it a little bit so you can picture it.

Think of the main facade of Notre Dame. There are 3 portals or doors. Above the doors is a long horizontal line of statues that takes up the whole width of the Cathedral. That’s the Gallery of Kings.

Above that is a balcony, called the Virgin’s Balcony, above that is the the western rose window in the center, and something that looks like more portals to the sides.

And above that again there is a row of columns, then the Gallery of the Chimeras across the whole width, and finally the north tower on the left and the south tower on the right.

The Gallery of Kings is probably 35 feet off the ground and the statues are 15 feet tall, they are massive.

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories the Gallery of Kings
The Gallery of the Kings at Notre Dame Cathedral. Photo Annie Sargent.

It’s Hard to See Without Binoculars

When you go visit, I recommend you bring binoculars or a zoom lens because even though the statues are very large, it’s hard to see from the ground without some help. But if you go to you’ll see it all very clearly because I have a great zoom lens and I love to take pictures of Cathedrals to share with you.

Who Are These Kings?

[03:36] The thing is, those statues from the 13th century weren’t labeled or signed and people didn’t know who the Kings they were. People assumed they were the Kings of France. They all have crowns, they all look down on you, yeah, why not, French Kings!

Revolutionaries were not fond of French Kings as you know, so, in 1793, they climbed up there and vandalized the statues. Notre Dame was in a pretty sorry state by the end of the French Revolution as we will see later, and breaking the statues didn’t help any.

Chopping Heads Off

[04:32] Chopping heads off was a thing during the French Revolution. They started with chopping off the heads of the stone Kings, and Louis XV was next 3 years later. He could have taken the hint and abdicate, but he didn’t.

Once the heads were down, the people of Paris had a little bit of fun hitting the heads of the Kings, breaking things off. But I mean they are made of stone, you can’t make much of a dent if you’re kicking them with your shoes. Most of the damage happened when they fell down.

Mr. Lakanal Hides the Heads

[05:04] At some point in 1793 or 1794, a man called Lakanal, owner of a hotel near today’s Opéra Garnier (but the opera wasn’t there yet), decided that he wanted to take the heads and put them in a big basement room between his hotel and a bank adjacent to his hotel.

How he pulled that off, I don’t know! The distance between Notre Dame and his hotel is about 3 kilometers. And hey, I’ll put a link in the show notes to that hotel just in case you want to check it out. It’s still there and it’s still a hotel!

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories; Big Heads at the Cluny Museum
A few of the King’s Heads at the Cluny Museum. Photo Annie Sargent.

Why Did Lakanal Hide the Heads?

[05:39] Some say Lakanal took the heads to protect them from the indignities inflicted by the vandals, others say he wanted to use the stones for something. I don’t know his motives.

But he put them there deep under his hotel and walled them in, and they were forgotten about. Why did he wall them in? Maybe he was worried that he’d get in trouble for stealing them? I don’t know.

How the King’s Heads Were Found

[05:57] Then move forward 200 years to 1977. The hotel is still there, and it needs to do some renovations that involve breaking down that wall. And, surprise! The workers find 21 big giant stone heads behind the wall!

Current owners had no clue more than 400 artifacts from Notre Dame Cathedral had been lying under their feet since the French Revolution! Because Lakanal didn’t just take the heads, he took everything he could!

Investigating the King’s Heads

[06:35] Historians and archaeologists came to investigate and eventually the heads were removed and placed inside the Cluny Museum.

Experts learned a lot from those heads. One thing in particular was that this proved that the original statues that adorned Notre Dame in the 1300s were painted.

Notre Dame Cathedral Used to Be Painted in Bright Colors

[06:57] Much of the exterior of Notre Dame was painted in bright colors back then. It’s hard to fathom today because we always see Cathedrals in their natural stone color (or with layers of gray pollution depending on when the last renovation took place), but most of them were painted!

And not painted white or cream or something. No, no, no, they used bright reds and greens and blacks, they were not afraid of color at all!

You Can See the Recovered King’s Heads at the Cluny Museum

[07:27] If you go see the big giant heads in the Cluny Museum, you which I recommend you do, you can still see bits of paint on them! They made some amazing paint in the 1300s because there was still some left 500 years later when the statues stood in the elements the whole time.

I can’t keep the paint on my wooden exterior shutters for more than 4 or 5 years! I want some of that paint from the 1300s!

The Kings’ Heads Were Not Thrown in the Seine River!

[07:53] So, just for the record. I’ve heard many times that the original chopped heads were thrown into the Seine river. I’ve probably repeated that myself, but no, that’s not what happened.

21 of the heads were under the hotel Moreau at #20 rue de la Chaussée d’Antin, near Opera Garnier. We’re still missing 7 heads, who knows, someone might find them somewhere else hidden in a basement in Paris!

The Gallery of Kings We See Today Is a Renovation

[08:25] So, when you go to Notre Dame today, the Gallery of Kings you are looking at dates from a fairly recent renovation effort led by Violet-le-Duc.

Well, recent in France terms, Notre Dame Cathedral underwent major renovations between 1844 and 1864. So yeah, a recent renovation from 154 years ago!

Faces In the Likeness of Modern People

[08:50]Modern sculptors had fun with the faces on the new Gallery of Kings. They kept the overall look the same with the Kings all lined up, they modeled some of the faces after famous people of the time, one of them being the aforementioned architect Violet-le-Duc.

Tell You Kids and Your Friends When You Visit Notre Dame!

[09:19] So there you have it, that’s the story of the decapitated French Kings on the facade of Notre Dame.

Now when you go, you’ll be able to tell your kids about angry Revolutionaries who climbed up there and chopped the heads off the statues.

Tell them to imagine the Cathedral painted in bright colors. And if they don’t believe you that Notre Dame Cathedral used to be painted, walk them to the left side of the church and look closely at some of the statues that are located close to the ground. You can see tiny remnants of paint on some of them!

Bible Stories on Notre Dame

[09:45] There are lots of Bible stories on all Cathedrals and Notre Dame is no exception. But the one I want to attract your attention to is right in front, above the central door, underneath the Gallery of Kings.

It’s fairly easy to see from the ground, and centrally located, indicating that the designers of the Cathedral didn’t want it to go unnoticed. That was the central story of Medieval Catholic teachings and they wanted people to see it right as they approached the church!

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories Souls in Hell Saint Peter and Devil

The Devil Trying to Steal Souls

[10:23] The sculpture shows an angel holding a scale in his hand with a supplicant on one side of the scale and devilish creatures pulling on the other side to steal that soul!

And right underneath that you see the a bunch of souls looking quite tormented. Are they the souls of the damned? Possibly. I’m not sure who the angel is either. I assumed it must be Saint Peter since he’s the one who is supposed to let people in to Paradise (or not), but I’ve seen this particular angel referenced as Saint Michael too.

But Saint Michael is the one who slew the dragon, and that one isn’t holding a sword, so I’m not sure. What do you think?

Notre Dame Cathedral Stories Souls in Hell Saint Peter or Saint Peter and Devil
Photo Annie Sargent

How to recognize the 12 Apostles in a Church

[11:13] Identifying who a statue is is not an easy job. Scholars disagree, but there are some known markers of various original Apostles. Let’s go through them quickly.

  • Andrew, the brother of Peter, carries a cross that looks like an X, he often has nails, a fisherman’s nest or fish.
  • Bartholomew carries a knife and a slice of detached human skin. There’s a good story there somewhere, but I don’t have time to linger on that today.
  • James the greater, brother of John the Apostle, is adorned with a shell, a pilgrim staff, a long coat, a water bottle (he walked a lot!)—He is of course the one associated with the Compostela pilgrimage.
  • James the lesser, carries a hammer.
  • The apostle John is associated with the eagle, the chalice and serpent, and a book.
  • Jude also carries a hammer and sometimes a bow.
  • Matthew carries an ax or a purse, is surrounded by angels, the sword of martyrdom and a book.
  • Paul who was not an apostle by preached all over carries a sword.
  • Philip is pictured with a long staff that ends in a cross or a dragon.
  • Peter is pictured with a boat, chains, keys, fisherman’s nest, and walking on the water.
  • Simon is with the boat, a book or a saw.
  • And finally Thomas has a javelin or tools.

The Wood Carvings at Notre Dame: Medieval Comic Strips

[13:53] When you go inside of Notre Dame you will also see painted wooden panels that tell several Bible stories. And those are labeled so we know exactly what we’re looking at!

The picture I’ll share with you on shows Jesus and the Miraculous Fish from John 21. I am not much of a believer at this point in my life, but I’ve read the Bible a few times and I love seeing the art that came out of these stories. Pretty much all of the art in Notre Dame tells Bible stories or the stories of Saints. So when you’re there, look around and see how many you can recognize!

Next Week on the Podcast

[14:35] Next week on the podcast I’ll be telling you another wonderful story that takes place at Notre Dame Cathedral, the story told by Victor Hugo that you know as The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

I listened to the book this week and loved it and I can’t wait to tell you all about it. I haven’t seen the Disney movie yet, I’ll do that this week in preparation for the podcast. See, it’s a rough podcaster’s life when you have to watch movies and read books! And yes, the gallery of kings, plays into Victor Hugo’s story as well.

Thank You for Supporting the Show!

[15:13] Thank you for joining to support the show on Patreon this week Tom Bubnick and Mike Freame! Check out how you can help the show here.

Au revoir, I’ll talk to you next week!

Support the show on Patreon.

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